Cilk plus, which implements the classic work stealing algo rithm, and. In this paper, we document the efficiency of the cilk work stealing scheduler, both empirically and analytically. The cilk runtime system implements a workstealing scheduler that is guaranteed to schedule the parallel program efficiently on whatever parallel processors are available at runtime. Frigo et al found that cilks workstealing protocol spends half of its time executing.
Scheduling multithreaded computations by work stealing. The cilk scheduler uses a policy called workstealing to divide procedure execution efficiently among multiple processors. Mista 2015 on task scheduling policies for work stealing schedulers steven adriaensen yasmin fathy ann now e 1 background parallel computing architectures are becoming more and more mainstream. When a thread runs out of work, it becomes a thief that attempts to steal a piece of work from another thread. It is because these responsibilities are separated that a cilk program can run without. A cilk program contains one or more cilk procedures, and each cilk procedure contains one or more cilk threads. Scheduling parallel programs by work stealing with private deques. Then you first try to steal work from your own queue, and if it is empty, try to steal from others. Work stealing has proven to be an effective method for scheduling. Cilk pronounced silk is a cbased runtime system for multithreaded parallel programming.
Intel cilk plus employs work stealing, where workers cores stealwork from other workers cores. In effect, work stealing distributes the scheduling work over idle processors, and as long as all processors have work to do, no scheduling overhead occurs. The basic notion is that threads create pieces of work. As an example, consider the following trivial forkjoin program in cilk like syntax. The intel cilk plus runtime uses a workstealing scheduler to dynamically loadbalance the tasks that are created by a cilk plus program. Again, it is easiest to understand if we look first at how cilk code is executed on a singleprocessor machine. A numaaware provablyefficient taskparallel platform based on. The cilk language and workstealing scheduler in this section we overview the cilk parallel multithreaded language and its runtime systems work stealing scheduler 6, 8, 26.
In parallel computing, work stealing is a scheduling strategy for multithreaded computer. The cilk language and workstealing scheduler usenix. As an example, consider the following trivial forkjoin program in cilklike syntax. Most such workstealing systems make the assumption that there are a small number of threads backed up typically by real processor cores, and that there is a exactly one work queue per thread. A primer on scheduling forkjoin parallelism with work.
A task parallel program can fail to scale on such a numa system, as a. Questions about work stealing scheduler intel software. The intel cilk plus runtime uses a workstealing scheduler to dynamically load balance the tasks that are created by a cilk plus program. When a worker runs out of work, it steals from the top of a random victims deque. It uses an optimized workstealing scheduler that provides efficient parallel task scheduling. Work stealing is a scheduling strategy that automatically balances a. Cilk journal of parallel and distributed computing. If the same multithreaded computation is generated by the program on the input.
Scheduling parallel programs by work stealing with private. To achieve high performance, work stealing distributes tasks between concurrent queues, called deques, assigned to each processor. Theoretical work on scheduling multithreaded applications. Work stealing blumofe 1994, burton 1981, as a standard way to distribute tasks among workers, has been widely adopted in both commercial and opensource software and libraries, including cilk. On task scheduling policies for workstealing schedulers. Work stealing is a scheduling strategy that automatically balances a parallel workload among available cpus in a multicore computer, using computation resources with. Workfirst and helpfirst scheduling policies for asyncfinish task.
Work stealing processors maintain work queues processor selects another processor uniformly at random and takes work work stealing vs. An efficient work stealing scheduler provides nearly. For brevity, we shall not present the entire cilk language, and we shall omit some details of the work stealing algorithm. Each processor operates on its deque locally except when performing load balancing via steals. Executing functional programs on a virtual tree of. Scheduling algorithms based on cilks workstealing sched uler are gaining in. Critical path, multithreading, parallel computing, program ming language, runtime system, work. This work aims to propose, implement and validate a scheduling approach based on work stealing in parallel systems with cpus and gpus simultaneously. Randomized work stealing for large scale soft realtime systems. In this paper, we document the efficiency of the cilk work stealing scheduler, both empirically and anal. It is used by mit cilk, intel cilk plus, intel tbb, microsoft ppl, and openmp tasking. Workstealing scheduler for multithread parallel processing based on cilk12. Workstealing has become the method of choice for scheduling forkjoin parallelism. The cilk runtime system implements a workstealing scheduler that is guaranteed to schedule the parallel program efficiently on whatever parallel processors are available at.1220 1506 415 1107 233 1406 86 1156 162 554 365 608 501 433 1127 411 683 331 816 609 1528 1195 1247 62 167 476 365 344 385 234 151 1334